Cesme, whose history dates back to 1000 BC and known as CYSUS, was one of the piers in the region of Erythrai (Eritrea), one of the 12 cities belonging to the Ionian Civilization at that time. The region leading in commercial activities in the Eastern Mediterranean was one of the centers of captive and wine trade. Eritrea was attacked first by the Lydians and then by the Persians. In the 14th centuries before Christ, it regained its former power.
In the 2nd century BC, it was dominated by the Kingdom of Pergamon and then by the Roman Empire. The Romans named the region Cysus and the Roman Empire lost its economic importance after the two divisions after the attacks made by the Germanic groups who came to Europe with the Migration of Tribes. Eritrea, which remained in Byzantine territory after the empire was divided, lost its former economic vitality with the decline of the activities in the region. It was captured in 1081 AD by Çaka Bey, who is known as the first Turkish admiral due to the formation of the first navy in Turkish history. A settlement was established between the hills 2 km south of Cesme and the Turks from the Oghuz Tribe settled in this region. After the death of Çaka Bey, who continued his success in the naval wars with Byzantium with the fleet he built, the region was dominated by Byzantium.
As it is clearly seen in the documents from the time of Fatih Sultan Mehmet, the region where gum gardens were widely seen was called İLDEREN because of this feature. The famous Turkish sailor Piri Reis mentioned the region as Ildırı in his book. As a result of archaeological excavations in the Ildırı region in 1963-1966, the ancient theater on the northern slopes was unearthed and estimates were made that it was built in the 3rd century BC. It was understood that the city was surrounded by a 5-kilometer long wall, and the pottery, earthen figures belonging to the 6th and 7th centuries BC belonging to the acropolis were found as a result of the studies.
The city was again connected to the Ottoman Empire by the Ottoman Emperor Yıldırım Beyazıt. It was attached to Aydınoğulları by Timur in the Battle of Ankara, which took place in 1402, during which the Timur Empire took place against the Ottoman Empire and the Principality of Serbia. The region was rejoined to the Ottoman Empire in 1422. Cesme was occupied by Greece during the Liberation Saval. On September 16, 1922, he was cleansed from the enemy by the troops loyal to Fahrettin Altay Pasha. Cesme Castle, one of the symbols of Cesme, was built in 1508 by Bayezid II to defend against pirates.